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Introduction & Citation

This web application allows correction of risk ratio (RR) or cumulative incidence point estimates and confidence intervals for bias due to outcome misclassification based on the Brenner and Gefeller's methodology [1]. The correction formulas use positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity (Se) estimates and allow input of values for both exposure strata. When Se or other values are unknown the effect of outcome misclassification on the point estimate can be demonstrated by inputting a range of values. The development of this web application was initiated by the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE) Database Special Interest Group. This work received financial support from ISPE and is free to use upon acknowledgement by citing the following paper:
Gillian C. Hall Stephan Lanes Kaatje Bollaerts Xiaofeng Zhou Germano Ferreira Rosa Gini. Outcome misclassification: Impact, usual practice in pharmacoepidemiology database studies and an online aid to correct biased estimates of risk ratio or cumulative incidence. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 29, 1450-1455 (2020). (

User Manual
[1] Brenner H and Gefeller O, Use of the Positive Predictive Value to Correct for Disease Misclassification in Epidemiologic Studies. AJE 1993. 138(11): p. 1007-1015.

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Provide risk ratio (RR) based on cumulative incidences

Select type of outcome misclassification